Volume 10 -
or the Editors Network
9 April 2002
and T. Gordon MacAulay
Department of Agricultural Economics, The University of Sydney, NSW, 2006
Over the last decade, following the doi moi reforms,
the Vietnamese government has formally recognised the household as the basic
unit of production and allocated land use rights to households.
Under the 1993 Land Law these rights can be transferred, exchanged,
leased, inherited, and mortgaged.
A land market is emerging in Vietnam but is still constrained for
Additionally, lack of flexibility of land use is an issue.
As Vietnam moves into the world market and reduces trade barriers in
line with ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) requirements,
farmers are becoming increasingly vulnerable to falling incomes because of
lower prices for their produce.
An overview of the land reform policies and issues related to these
are outlined in the paper.
Challenges facing Vietnamese agriculture are discussed within the
context of an effort by Vietnam to more its household farms from subsistence
farming to a more commercial base.
12 June 2002
Griffith, Principal Research Scientist, NSW
Agriculture Beef Industry Centre, Armidale, a Project Leader, Beef Quality CRC
and Adjunct Professor, University of New England and Andrew Alford, PhD scholar at the University of New
England, funded by the Beef Quality CRC.
Although there is some disagreement about the fine detail
the signposts for the Australian beef
industry appear to be pointing mainly in the “positive” direction in the
How long will this situation last and what can cattle
producers, feedlot operators and meat processors do to protect themselves
against the inevitable turnaround towards the “negative” direction?
In this paper, one of the critical factors influencing the
longer-term future of the beef market, the United States (US) cattle cycle, is
described and its impacts on Australia are evaluated.
1 August 2002
Choi, Korea Rural Economic Institute, Seoul 130-710, Korea, Zhang-Yue Zhou and Rodney J. Cox,
The University of Sydney – Orange, Orange NSW 2800
recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the
beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import
arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef
market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced
by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef
are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and
imported beef can be sold in the same outlet. In addition, any retailer is now
permitted to sell imported beef. Thanks to the WTO-led reforms, Australia can
benefit from the changes in the Korean beef market. In this study, we examine
beef consumption trends in Korea; Korea’s beef cattle production and its beef
supply potential; beef import prospects; likely responses in the Korean beef
industry as a result of the beef import tariffication; and beef trading
arrangements in Korea. We also draw implications on how the Australian beef
industry may capitalise on the opening up of the Korean beef market.
19 August 2002
Hui-Shung (Christie) Changb, Garry Griffithb,c,
Chris O’Donnellb and
The authors are with a the Indonesian Directorate-General
of Livestock Services, Jakarta; b
the University of New England, Armidale; and
cNSW Agriculture, Armidale.
consumption, expenditure and socio-demographic data from the 1990, 1993 and 1996
SUSENAS Household Food Expenditure and Consumption Surveys were employed to
estimate the demand for meats in Indonesia.
The focus was on the Provinces of DKI Jakarta and West Java where about
one-fourth of the Indonesian population reside. Statistical and econometric
procedures were used to aggregate the 16 meat types recorded in the SUSENAS into
four meat groups. They were then used to estimate the Linear Approximation of
the Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model, taking into account zero
observations and the restriction that budget shares must lie between zero and
The following 3 papers, numbers 5, 6 &
7 are a series.
Introductory Remarks -
The Future of Farm Management
These three papers
comprised a plenary session at the 46th Conference of AARES in
February 2002. Its title was
‘Agenda for the 21st Century: Farm Management.’ At
first blush the papers seem to be unrelated.
But this is their real value as a set.
Farm management in
Australia is an exotic domain. Low
protection, significant export dependence and climatic variability create
instability in the farm management environment that is uncommon across
management environments as a whole. Control
over performance is weak. This
instability illuminates the remorseless deterioration in farmers’ terms of
Both economic theory and
systems theory imply that the deliberate achievement of survival in the long
run is problematic in such environments.
But farmers are phlegmatic about the long run, and distrustful of
Two consequences flow from
the magnitude of the challenge they face routinely: the pivotal importance
of productivity improvement to realised farm performance; and the complex,
fluid, sometimes chaotic, recipe for success as a farm manager.
This is a context where the
farming game is under permanent redefinition, where required skills (and
their likely providers) shift and where myths and legends, heroes and
champions, inhabit the culture.
The canvas, the playing
field, on which farms will be more or less well managed is largely defined
by productivity change and its known consequences (such as farm numbers,
size, political influence, and so on).
The way farmers manage, and the policy context that defines their
dependence on their own ability to do so, flows from human conceptual
modelling of the task.
These papers are
intrinsically closely related. They
also provide a thorough coverage of the farm management agenda, perhaps the
most constant aspect of Australian farming.
Professor Vic Wright
The University of New England - firstname.lastname@example.org
10 September 2002
D Mullen, NSW Agriculture, Head
Office, 161 Kite Street, Orange, NSW 2800
A key element of an agenda for farm management in
the 21st Century should be productivity on farms. The gains from
productivity since 1953 have been enough to offset declines in the real price of
farm outputs at least in the broadacre sector. Productivity gains will remain
important to the sector in this century. For public institutions, the focus of
research and extension activities will continue to switch to the management of
natural resources. Farmers and policy makers will need to know the on-farm
impacts of technologies and policies that will effect resource stocks over many
years. A challenge to farm management professionals will be how to present this
information, derived from sophisticated modelling,
to farmers and policy makers. My guess is that Malcolm’s ‘few
figurings’ of a ‘few futures’ is the way to go.
10 September 2002
Senior adviser, Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Visiting senior lecturer, University of
Against a backdrop of descriptive snapshots of
the years 1975, 2000 and 2025, this paper explores challenges for broadacre farm
managers. Issues of particular relevance to Western Australian farm managers are
emphasized. Key market,
environmental, technical, structural and social challenges and their
implications for farm managers are discussed.
Established and emerging trends, along with
commentaries of a range of futurists, are used to develop forecasts for farm
management. The paper concludes by
examining the question of change in farm management: How might the farm manager
in 2025 be different from one in 2000 and what are the implications for farm
management training, farm management advisory services and farm management
10 September 2002
Glenn Ronan, Principal Strategy
Consultant, Primary Industries and Resources South Australia
Challenges and opportunities on
and off the farm generate a changing agenda for farm business management and
farm families in Australia’s rural sector. National, state and regional
interest in the contribution and connections of farming to agribusiness, the
food sector and the economy, the environmental status of rural land and water
and the welfare of farm families leads to public policies interfacing and
interacting with private farm business interests.
Conceptualising farm businesses
as mixes of ‘management’, ‘resources’ and
‘family’ aids appreciation of new structures and strategies, ties in
with ‘triple bottom line’ thinking and reflects the shift from farm policy
to an array of policies focussing on social, environment and economic aspects of
contemporary life in rural and regional Australia. Farming’s links to the
domestic and international economy, the environment and regional economies and
rural communities are illustrated as the basis of agenda review and search.
Selected issues on the agenda
from 1970 are plotted and delved into with the aid of a new web based
bibliography of Australian farm management, including the literature of the
Australian Farm Management Society. Divining agenda towards 2010 is attempted.
Some legends, leaders and champions of farm management in Australia are
11 September 2002
Zhou, Asian Agribusiness Research Centre, The University of Sydney,
Orange NSW 2800 email@example.com
Tian, and Jun-Lin Zhou College of Economics and Management, China
Agricultural University, Beijing China 100094
Currently per capita consumption of dairy
products in China is low. The question as to whether China’s strong economic
growth and the resulting higher consumer income would represent a great market
potential for dairy products has drawn much interest from the dairy industry
both within and outside China. This paper overviews China’s dairy market with
up-to-date information and highlights important factors affecting its
development. The study shows that the growth of demand for dairy products in
China is promising. However, despite the fact that China’s accession to the
WTO will result in reductions in trade barriers, a substantial increase in
exports of dairy products to the Chinese market is unlikely in the near future.
This is due to a number of reasons including taste differences between the
Chinese and the consumers of major dairy exporting countries. To succeed in the
Chinese market, dairy exporters need to increase their understanding of the
Chinese dairy markets and to consider modifying their products to suit the
tastes of the Chinese.
11 September 2002
Senior Lecturer in the School of Economics at the University of New England,
Principal Research Scientist in the NSW Agriculture Beef Industry Centre at
Armidale and Nicholas Bettington,
Adjunct Professor in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Resource
Economics at the University of New England
The objective of this study is to explain the
factors determining the demand for wine in Australia, based on a systems
approach where wine demand is modelled as part of the broader demand for
alcoholic drinks (beer, wine and spirits). Time series data on retail price
indexes and apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages for Australia
for the period 1975/76 to 1998/99 are used for econometric estimation of an
Almost Ideal Demand System. The results show that the demand for beer and wine
is price inelastic and that both beer and wine are luxury goods. The study also
found that current beer and wine consumption strongly follows past consumption
patterns. Drink driving campaigns have not had a significant effect on alcoholic
consumption, but there seems to have been a structural change in consumer
preferences that has had a significant impact on the volume of wine consumption.
Finally, there seems to have been an overall upward trend in wine consumption
and a downward trend for beer consumption. The study re-confirms the importance
of developing a model that considers the impacts of both economic and
non-economic variables on wine consumption. Implications for wine industry
marketing strategies are suggested.
26 November 2002
Xi-An Liu and Zhang-Yue
Zhou - Asian Agribusiness Research
Centre, The University of Sydney, Orange NSW 2800 firstname.lastname@example.org
and Hua-Yong Teng and Qing-Fang Guo - College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural
University, Beijing China 100094
Due to the dominant role of household animal raising in China’s animal
production, an improved understanding of household animal raising practices
is essential to study China’s feedgrain markets. It is also noted that the
level of local economic development affects animal raising practices and the
development of feedgrain markets. This paper reports the findings from a
rural household survey we conducted in a developed coastal province of
China. It was specially designed to examine issues related to household
animal raising practices such as animal raising scale, sources of feed, feed
processing and feeding efficiency in a developed area. Discussed also are
the implications that the findings have for China’s regional feedgrain